アカデミックプラザ2013

研究概要

Starch Based Future Food for Glucose Management

研究機関名

Riddet Institute, Massey University, New Zealand

代表者

Dr Jaspreet Singh

本研究の主旨

Starch is exclusively composed of amylopectin and amylose, both homo-polymers, with primarily alpha-(1–4) linked glucose units, differing in molecular weight (MW) and degree of alpha-(1–6) branching. Consumption of starch containing foods is critical for diabetics, since due to lack of insulin, the glucose produced in the blood after digestion cannot be utilized in a quantitatively sufficient manner. The management of Type 2 diabetes and its complications account for a significant proportion of health expenditure. Nutrition is of utmost importance in the intensive management of diabetes and obesity to the extent that it has often been described as the cornerstone of care for both these problems. A good level of understanding of the relationships between physiological and metabolic processes in the human body and the physico-chemical and structural characteristics of starch is required to underpin research on starch digestion and post prandial glucose release. To date, there have been several attempts to control the glycemic response to food, including use of very low levels of starch and starvation diets, artificial sweeteners, and using inhibitors of digestive enzymes and carbohydrate absorption. Most of the time these low glycemic preparations lack proper functional properties (appearance, texture etc), taste and are expensive, therefore becoming regarded more as pharmacological preparations rather than as food. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that structural characteristics of starches influence their functional properties including digestibility. In starch based food systems, the inclusion complexation and encapsulation of starch with food ingredients such as lipids, food gums and proteins is of importance in connection with functionality and stability of starch during gastro intestinal digestion and glycemic response. The effectiveness of self-assembly, complexation and encapsulation is influenced by the starch characteristics such as normal, waxy and high amylose. Therefore, starch based structures with unique nutritional attributes and functional properties can be developed by critically altering the structure of starch from a right source. These structures would enhance the nutritional quality of food when used for the development of low-calorie, slowly digestible processed foods which also tastes very good and have no safety issues.

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