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研究概要

Method optimization for preparation of Water Chestnut Flour (Gluten free), its physicochemical,Pasting, Morphological properties and its potential in cookies preparation.

研究機関名

Department of Food, Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs, Amritsar, Punjab (INDIA) and Department of Food Engg. & Technology, Sant Longowal Institute of Engg. & Technology, Longowal, Sangrur (INDIA)

代表者

Dr. GAGANDEEP SINGH

本研究の主旨

Water chestnut (Trapa natans ) belongs to the family Trapaceae, one of the free-floating plants, grown in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy lands in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The fruit is dried and the flour prepared from it is easily digestible with negligible fat content and is helpful for dieting. Water chestnut flour thus can be a good replacement for wheat flour with respect the Celiac disease caused by indigestion of gluten (wheat protein). Treatment of water chestnut slices with 0.1% KMS and 0.5% citric acid for 30 minutes before drying exhibited best results in terms color of the flour. Total sugars and reducing sugars detected in flour sample were 10.42 and 6.2%, respectively. The flour had typical sweet nutty flavor which is liked by many people. Oil binding capacity of the flour was found out to be low at 60.39%. Sieve analysis of water chestnut flour showed that the mean particle size calculated was 268.20 ㎛. More than 40% of the flour showed particle size lower than 100㎛, and a bimodal distribution of the particle size was observed in the pattern. Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) were taken by a Scanning Electron Microscope (Jeol Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) revealed that the granules present in water chestnut flour were polyhedral, bearing smooth surface. Although size of granules was found out to be medium having diameter in the range of 5 to 20㎛ but small size granules having diameter 5 ㎛ or less contributed only 10% of the lot. Pasting profile of the water chestnut flour prepared was examined against the water chestnut flour bought from the market with the help of Rapid Visco Analyzer. The standard water chestnut flour exhibited higher peak viscosity (PV) at 2611cP than the market flour at 1912cP. The breakdown (peak viscosity minus trough viscosity), regarded as a measure of degree of disintegration of granules, i.e. of paste stability was too higher at 898cP for standard water chestnut flour against value of 625cP for market sample. The cookies made from various proportion of water chestnut flour and wheat flour. The spread ratio of cookies from different flour combinations was not affected significantly. Bulk density of control sample was 555g/cc as compared to 536g/ml of that of cookies prepared from 100% water chestnut flour. Sensory evaluation data evaluated using 9-Point Hedonic scale showed that the cookies made with the 100% water chestnut flour scored good range of acceptance.


Sieve analysis of water chestnut flour

Fig.1 Sieve analysis of water chestnut flour

The RVA viscoamylogram of water chestnut flours

Fig.2 The RVA viscoamylogram of water chestnut flours


Scanning electron micrograph of water chestnut flour

Fig.3 Scanning electron micrograph of water chestnut flour

Cookies prepared from flour blends containing different proportions of water chestnut (WCF) and wheat flours (WF)

Fig.4 Cookies prepared from flour blends containing different proportions of water chestnut (WCF) and wheat flours (WF)